Ahead of us the twin blacktop lanes of Route 80 slash across the high desert of the San Pedro River Basin before winding up the west side of the craggy Mule Mountains. This is ranching land in Cochise County, the scrap of Arizona that abuts Mexico on the south and New Mexico on the east. Named for the famed Apache leader, this is home to Tombstone, the Boot Hill Cemetery, the Gunfight at the O.K. Corral, and, well, the entire Wild West legend. In a process initiated in 1853 with Ambassador James Gadsden’s signature on what would come to be called the Gadsden Purchase, the surrounding territory became part of the United States when President Franklin Pierce signed the treaty the following year. The territory’s honeymoon with the United States wasn’t peaceful. Settler and Apache conflict always smoldered and often blazed, boomtowns like Tombstone attracted risk takers and law breakers, and cattle rustling was the reigning leisure pursuit.
Cochise County was the epicenter of this tempestuous time period and our road traverses a land littered with Native American burial grounds, the corpses of those who discovered that they were not the fastest gun in the west, and the sad remnants of failed homesteads. But, we also pass success stories of American expansion – lovely ranch houses surrounded by huge cottonwood trees, cattle grazing peacefully, and cowboys out on the range doing what cowboys have always done – before reaching 6,000 feet of elevation at Mule Pass and rolling down the other side into Tombstone Canyon and the mile-high mining town of Bisbee.
“El Camino del Diablo,” or “The Devil’s Highway,” passes just to the west of these lands. The 250 mile trail, originally a Native American footpath, marks the routes of Francisco Vasquez de Coronado in the 1500s for his soul sacrificing search for the City of Gold and of Father Eusebio Francisco Kino’s soul saving quest in the 1600s. In recent times, though, El Camino del Diablo has worked its evil on the migrants making their way to what they hope will be a better life. It’s a desolate path littered with grave markers and the detritus of the desperate.
The Camino cuts a wider swath than the footpath of a half millennium ago and the effects of El Diablo’s labors are evident here, too. It was here that a decade ago the vigilante border patrol group, the Minuteman Project, sprang to life. And though the group formally disbanded several years ago, even more radicalized citizen groups still patrol the border and humanitarian groups have reported violent encounters with them. On the other hand, ranchers report that the migrants commit break-ins and more violent acts. Recent grave markers in this area bear witness to continuing presence of evil.
Sometimes that evil has risen out of the landscape and loomed over the populace, casting a dark shadow from the Mule Mountains of Cochise County to the Sierra Madres in Sonora.
In an attempt to illuminate the Devil’s Highway, this book’s narrative inhabits a multicultural/multilingual canvas that spans an international border and alights in prairies, bluffs, fields, homes, back allies, and alongside the border fence. In the glaring desert sun, on comfy back porches, and under the cover of darkness, we’ll sit at the feet of ranchers, miners, drug smugglers, struggling families, conceptual artists, cowboys, cooks, and anyone along the way who will share with us their stories. Using the voices of older members of the borderlands communities as a prism, we’ll endeavor to peer through the mists of time and cultural transformation to gain an understanding of a century of life and death along the US/Mexico border.
I began fashioning this tale under the gloom of a rising Donald Trump candidacy that I, and nearly everyone else, thought unlikely to succeed. But, prevail he did. Now, we face the prospect of a “big, beautiful wall” along the US/Mexico border. Or, maybe not. The deportation of twelve to thirteen million people. Or, maybe not. The exclusion of immigrants and refugees from Muslim countries. Or, maybe not. In any event, at least for a while, we’ve probably seen the last of that nation referenced in the Emma Lazarus sonnet, “The New Colossus,” inscribed on Lady Liberty’s tablet.
I aim to illuminate what once existed and to explore an evolving new terrain.
In what appears to be a curious act of political theater and provocation, the Trump administration has announced plans to construct between four and twenty border wall “physically imposing” “prototypes” on a strip of federal land near San Diego and “within 120 feet (37 meters) of the border.” Each prototype will “be about 30 feet (9 meters) long and 18 to 30 feet (5.5 to 9 meters) high” and must be able to withstand attacks from “sledgehammer, car jack, pick axe, chisel, battery operated impact tools, battery operated cutting tools, Oxy/acetylene torch” for at least one hour, and preferably for four.
This from a property developer who’s never seen a need to construct prototypes of his hotels or the walls surrounding his golf courses. What purpose can there be for conducting a sledgehammer destruction fest within easy view of the border, but to provoke response?
One firm, Dark Pulse Technologies (really) has confirmed that it has been selected to submit a final prototype proposal, due May 30.
Construction on the prototypes was originally scheduled to commence June 22, 2017 and end a month later. On June 15, 2017 acting Border Patrol Chief Carla Provost testified to the House Appropriations Committee that construction of four to eight prototypes would commence in “late summer.” Whenever it happens, I’ll be there, video camera in hand and drone in the sky, to capture interviews on both sides of the border that I’ll weave into the narrative of Solitude, Struggle, and Violence’s final chapter.
June 24, 2017: “[L]ocals say it’s clear that preparations are already being made on the ground. Jill Holslin, a photographer and San Diego State lecturer who has gone hiking in the area for years, said she’s noticed increased construction activity in the last few weeks, with Army Corps of Engineers workers leveling land and marking off what appears to be a staging area with orange construction tape.”
July 12, 2017: At least three prototype finalists have emerged, only two of with are willing to be named publicly. The selection process, according to the anonymous finalist, has been less than methodical: “’It’s been a real mess.’ In more than three decades of soliciting and executing large-scale government construction projects, including multiple structures along the southern border, the contractor says he has never seen a bidding process so chaotic and rudderless as this one. ‘The lack of coordination, the lack of funding — they’re just not ready for prime time.’”
Albert Schweitzer Institute Support.
I’m humbled to report that the Albert Schweitzer Institute has awarded me a fellowship in honor of my work on this project and to support my continued work on it.
On the road.
I’ve been on the road telling tales of the borderlands wherever folks might be willing to listen.
October 23-28, 2017: American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 64th Annual Meeting, Washington, DC.
April 15, 2017: Association for Borderlands Studies, San Francisco.
March 28, 2017: Quinnipiac Law School, Hamden, Connecticut.
August 2-4, 2016: 11th International Conference on Interdisciplinary Social Sciences, Imperial College London, London, UK
June 1-4, 2016: 62nd annual conference of the American Association of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP), held in conjunction with the 60th annual conference of Spanish Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Association (AEPNYA), San Sebastian, Spain.
April 13-16, 2016: 58th Annual Conference of the Association for Borderlands Studies, held in conjunction with the conference of Western Social Science Association, Grand Sierra Resort and Casino Reno, Nevada.
February 10-13, 2016: 37th Annual Southwest Popular/American Culture Association Conference, at the Hyatt Regency Hotel and Conference Center in Albuquerque, NM.
(1941 Mercury photo credit: Emmy De Wilde-Deuteko)